Algae is a type of plant that contains chlorophyll and other pigments. Algae can be a single-cell organism or multicellular organism. You can easily found algae in freshwater and saltwater, or on the surface of the most rock. When the sunlight falls on algae, It converts the light energy into a food molecule and starts the process called photosynthesis. The cell walls of algae are made up of cellulose. The largest and complex type of algae in marine water is seaweed.
Algae are categorized into different seven types. Each type has a different color, size, and properties.
- Euglenophyta (Euglenoids)
- Chrysophyta (Golden-brown algae and Diatoms)
- Pyrrophyta (Fire algae)
- Chlorophyta (Green algae)
- Rhodophyta (Red algae)
- Phaeophyta (Brown algae)
- Xanthophyta (Yellow-green algae)
The scientific name of euglenids is Euglenophyta. These species are found in freshwater as well as saltwater. Some euglenoids are autotrophic like plants, and they contain chloroplast and capable of photosynthesis. These algae follow the principles of animal cells. These algae are like to eat unicellular organisms and also take rich-carbon minerals.
Chrysophyta (Golden-brown algae and Diatoms)
Golden-brown algae and diatoms both are the very rich type of unicellular algae, both are mainly found in freshwater as well as saltwater. It consists of more than 100000 species around the world. The scientific name of Golden-brown Algae is Chrysophyta. The wide range of diatoms is common as easily available as compare to Golden-brown algae. Diatoms don’t have cell wall it consists of the silica shell.
Pyrrophyta (Fire algae)
These algae are normally found in saltwater. Fire algae are single-celled algae that consist of two flagella used for locomotion. Most of the microscopic species of Fire algae are found in seawater, but less are found in freshwater. They are separated into two species; these are given below:
- Dinoflagellates: It causes a phenomenon which is red tide, in this ocean appears red when it present in the large amount.
- Cryptomonads: It produces harmful blooms that turn the color of the water to dark brown.
Chlorophyta (Green algae)
The green algae occur in freshwater. This algae also have cell walls that look like fire algae. Some types of green algae are single-celled and microscopic, but others are large in size and very complexed. There are some species of green algae that are found in the sea. The most common types of green algae are horsehair algae and dead man’s fingers.
Rhodophyta (Red algae)
The red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as marine plants. Red algae are found in shallow waters and deep tropical sea. There are some species of Red algae are also occur in freshwater. Some species of red algae are growing on solid surfaces. The cell wall of red algae consists of cellulose and different type of cellulose. The species contain red pigments and have filaments that massed together.
Phaeophyta (Brown algae)
The brown algae contain brown pigments. These species consist of air pockets, photosynthetic organs, and reproductive tissues. It is shiny brown seaweed and expressly occurs on the rocky coast. Brown algae are very large in size and have complexed structures. It is found on the pacific coast. It provides shelter to a wide range of marine life.
Xanthophyta (Yellow-green algae)
The yellow-green algae derive the color from their pigments. It primarily occurs in freshwater. They are single-celled, and the cell walls are made up of cellulose. The species of yellow algae are lying between 450 to 650, which is very less as compare to others.